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NFSI B101.0 Walkway Surface Auditing Procedure for the Measurement of Walkway Slip Resistance
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Scope: This standard provides the technical procedures for walkway auditing and measuring the coefficient of friction (tribometry) of walkway surfaces in both public and private facilities.

Purpose: The purpose of this standard is to provide specific methods and procedures for the performance of a walkway audit, which may, by its performance, reduce or prevent injuries and fatalities from slips and falls.

Application: This standard sets forth the requirements in the process of walkway surface auditing using a three (3) risk class approach to structure a detailed and systematic procedure resulting in an auditor’s report suggestive of warranted interventions.

B101.0 Walkway Surface Auditing Procedure for the Measurement of Walkway Slip Resistance.  

NFSI B101.1 Test Method for Measuring Wet SCOF of Common Hard-Surface Floor Materials
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Scope: This test method specifies the procedures and devices used for both laboratory and field testing to measure the wet static coefficient of friction (SCOF) of common hard-surface floor materials.

Purpose: This test method provides a measurement procedure setting forth traction ranges that facilitate remediation of walkway surfaces when warranted.

Application: This test method does not apply to carpeting of any type or mechanically polished tile such as polished porcelain, marble, etc., but does address the common hard-surfaced flooring materials such as ceramic tile, vinyl floor coverings, and wood laminates, as well as coatings, polishes, etc.

Test Method for Measuring Wet SCOF of Common Hard Surface Floor Materials

NFSI B101.2 Test Method for Determining the Impact on Wet Dynamic Coefficient of Friction of Various Chemical or Physical Walkway Surface Treatments
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Scope: This standard covers the change in dynamic coefficient of friction (DCOF) resulting from various chemical or physical walkway surface treatments on ceramic tile or other hard floor surfaces under wet conditions. This standard can be used in the laboratory or in the field.

Purpose: This standard should be used for the purpose of judging the relative impact of a particular chemical or physical walkway surface treatment on a specific hard floor substrate with regards to the wet DCOF of that surface. This is just one factor in determining the safety of the floor from a slip resistance perspective.

Application: This standard applies to various chemical or physical walkway surface treatments on appropriate hard floor surfaces under wet conditions. Its application is limited by the technology used to measure wet DCOF, and does not apply to all walkway surfaces (detailed further in the standard).

Test Method for Determining the Impact on Wet Coefficients of Friction of Various Chemical or Physical Walkway Surface Cleaners and Treatments on Common Hard-Surface Flooring Materials

NFSI B101.3 Test Method for Measuring Wet DCOF of Common Hard-Surface Floor Materials
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Scope: This test method specifies the procedures and devices used for both laboratory and field testing to measure the wet dynamic coefficient of friction (DCOF) of common hard-surface floor materials.

Purpose: This test method provides a measurement procedure setting forth DCOF ranges which facilitate remediation of walkway surfaces when warranted.

Application: This test method does not apply to carpeting of any type, however does address the common hard-surfaced flooring materials such as: ceramic and porcelain tile, polished concrete, stone, vinyl floor coverings, wood and synthetic laminates, and such materials with coatings or polishes applied.

Note:  This test method does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. No express or implied representation or warranty is made regarding the accuracy or significance of any test results in terms of slip resistance.

Test Method for Measuring the Wet DCOF of Hard Surface Walkways

B101.4 Test Method for Measuring the Wet Barefoot Condition of Surfaces (Including Action and Limit Thresholds for the Suitable Assessment of the Measured Values)

Section 1: Scope/Purpose/Application/Exceptions 

1.1   Scope

This test method specifies the procedures and minimum safety performance criteria for both laboratory and field testing of the coefficient of friction (COF) for surfaces that are intended to be used wet in a barefoot condition by individuals who stand, step or walk.  This test method addresses improved surfaces that are intended to be used wet in a stationary or quasi-stationary barefoot standing position (‘S1 Category’ surfaces), such as but not limited to bathroom showers and tub enclosures, as well as surfaces that are intended to be used wet in a walking barefoot condition (‘W1 Category’ surfaces), such as but not limited to pool decks, water park surfaces, restroom/bathroom/locker room floors, and sauna floors.      

1.2 Purpose

This test method specifies a measurement procedure and COF ranges that provide a reasonable degree of traction for safe use in the wet barefoot condition by individuals who stand, step or walk, as well as guidelines for lower COF ranges that warrant remediation of the surfaces. 

The test measurement procedure specified in this standard for ‘S1 Category’ surfaces (i.e. surfaces intended to be used wet in a stationary or quasi-stationary barefoot standing position) can be conducted using either the Static Coefficient of Friction (SCOF) method or the Dynamic Coefficient of Friction (DCOF) method.  Performance criteria are specified in this standard for either method for ‘S1 Category’ surfaces.

The test measurement procedure specified in this standard for ‘W1 Category’ surfaces (i.e. surfaces intended to be used wet in a walking barefoot condition) shall be conducted using the Dynamic Coefficient of Friction (DCOF) method only. 

1.3 Application

This test method applies to all types of surfaces intended to be used wet in the barefoot condition in a standing posture to any extent, including all types of indoor and outdoor improved surfaces in public or private areas.  This test method includes, but is not limited to the following:

  • Bathroom/locker room shower surfaces/tiles/enclosres;
  • Bathroom/tub/hot tub/jacuzzi surfaces/enclosures;
  • Physical therapy areas and apparatus involving water, such as but not limited to whirlpool/hydrotherapy baths or water massage;
  • Bathroom/locker room floor tiles and floor surfaces;
  • Residential homes, multi-dwelling units, hotels, and water parks;
  • Splash parks and water spray/fountain areas intended for human use;
  • Water slide standing entry launch pools;
  • Private or public pool decks, diving boards, and pool entry stairs/ramps/ladders;
  • Cruise ship pool decks and pool stairs;
  • Marine vessel standing surfaces/decks intended to be used in the wet barefoot condition;
  • Commercial/residential/public swim docks or waterfront docks;
  • Submerged surfaces of wading pools/pools/wave pools that are less than 3.0 ft (0.91 m) deep in calm waters;
  • Private and public saunas, spas, and steam rooms; and,
  • Recreation center shower rooms.

This test method does not apply to the following:

  • Unimproved land, natural walkways, natural ponds, rivers, grass, beach, and the like;
  • Water slide chutes;
  • Personal water rafts;
  • Submerged surfaces of wading pools/pools/wave pools that are at least 3.0 ft (0.91 m) deep in calm waters;
  • Inflatable water play structures and toys;
  • Surfboards, waveboards, water skis, and the like;
  • Marine vessel/cruise ship surfaces/decks that are not intended to be used in the wet barefoot condition;
  • Personal water craft seated foot placement areas;
  • Public sidewalks not intended to be used wet in the barefoot condition;
  • Surfaces not intended to be used wet in the barefoot condition; and,
  • Surfaces expressly intended to be used wet while running, dancing, or in any form of ambulation other than standing, stepping or walking.

This test method includes all types of surfaces and materials used in the applicable environments listed above upon which persons are intended to stand, step or walk, including but not limited to: hard-surface materials such as ceramic/porcelain tile, brushed/polished/painted/coated/finished concrete, textured/polished stone, acrylic, vinyl tile, wood, coated/painted metal, or synthetic laminates; impact absorbent materials such as foam-based/rubber-based tiles and sheets and coatings; composite surface materials; and such materials with coatings, polishes, or traction-enhancing treatment(s) applied.

1.4 Exceptions

This test method is not intended for dry surface testing and does not propose to be an accurate measurement method for determining dry surface traction.  Dry surface test data should not be compared to wet surface data. No inferences should be implied or concluded regarding dry vs. wet COF test results from this test method.

This test method does not address wet surface testing with ordinary footwear.  Common experience and scientific testing have both shown that the traction provided by a wet surface will be much higher for barefoot skin of all ages than for ordinary footwear when tested in the same manner, due to the pliability and characteristics of human tissue.  This standard prescribes a test method that will ensure reasonably safe use of a wet surface specifically when barefoot.  As such, the performance values in this standard do not apply to ordinary footwear use.  For surfaces intended to be used with both bare feet and ordinary footwear, compliance with slip resistance standards for footwear use will also be required.

This standard does not address the wet barefoot use of ambulation aids, such as canes, crutches, walkers, prosthetics, or similar devices.

IN DEVELOPMENT PROCESS—STANDARD CURRENTLY UNPUBLISHED

NFSI B101.5-2020 B101.5 Standard Guide for Uniform Labeling Method for Identifying the Wet Dynamic Coefficient of Friction (Traction) of Floor Coverings, Floor Coatings, and Treatments

Scope: This guideline sets forth a uniform product labeling method which identifies the wet dynamic coefficient of friction (traction) of floor coverings, floor coatings, and floor treatments (collectively referred to as “floor products”).  Carpeting, rugs, mats, runners, and artificial turf, however, are not within the scope of this standard and, therefore, are not within the scope of “floor products”.

Application: This standard applies to floor products used primarily on public and private areas for household, individual or non-commercial use where pedestrians ambulate. The term “floor products” refers to floor coverings, coatings, and treatments intended for floor coverings except carpeting, rugs, mats, runners, and artificial turf.  

Purpose: The purpose of this standard is to offer, at the point of product sale, guidance to users/purchasers on the traction capabilities of the contents of the package through display of labels and markings.

NFSI B101.6 Standard Guide for Commercial Entrance Matting in Reducing Slips, Trips and Falls
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Scope:This standard provides the criteria for the selection, installation, inspection, care and maintenance of entrance mats and runners in commercial facilities in reducing slips, trips and falls.

Application: The requirements of this standard pertain to the safe usage and applications, design, construction, and quality criteria of floor mats and runners.

Purpose: This standard is directed to eliminating slip, trip and fall hazards including but not limited to soil, moisture, contaminant removal, edge treatments and the improper use of floor mats and runners.

Standard Guide for Commercial Entrance Matting in Reducing Slips, Trips and Falls.

NFSI B101.7 Standard Test Method for Lab Measurement of Footwear Outsole Material Slip Resistance
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IN DEVELOPMENT PROCESS—STANDARD CURRENTLY UNPUBLISHED

NFSI B101.8 A Floor Safety Management Program for Slip, Trip, and Fall Prevention
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Scope – This standard sets forth criteria to assist organizations in their efforts to establish a floor safety management program including the roles and the responsibilities of management, supervisory, and operational levels using accepted best practices to prevent and mitigate the risks of slips, trips and falls on walkways (S/T/F’s).

Application – This standard is appropriate to organizations whose managerial, supervisory and operational functions whether in-house or third-party providers are defined in a programmatic framework using performance requirements of best practices to prevent and ameliorate S/T/F’s.

Purpose – The purpose of this standard is to establish an integrated program by which policies, processes, procedures and supporting guidelines can mitigate and prevent the potential of persons incurring injuries or death from the hazards associated with S/T/F’s.

Standard Guide for Floor Safety Management Program for Slip, Trip and Fall Prevention

NFSI B101.9-2020 Standard Guide for Identification and Elimination of Interior and Exterior Pedestrian Trip Hazards on Walking Surfaces, Stairs, Steps and Ramps

Standard Guide for Identification and Elimination of Interior and

Exterior Pedestrian Trip Hazards on Walking Surfaces, Stairs, Steps and Ramps

Standard Guide for Identification and Elimination of Interior and Exterior Pedestrian Trip Hazards on Walking Surfaces, Stairs, Steps and Ramps

NFSI B101.10 Standard for Preparing, Maintaining, Conditioning and Storing Tribometer Sensor Material
Scope: The standard will address the proper Preparing, Maintaining, Conditioning and Storing of Tribometer Sensor Material

Purpose: To create a uniform guideline for Preparing, Maintaining, Conditioning and Storing Tribometer Sensor Material

IN DEVELOPMENT PROCESS—STANDARD CURRENTLY UNPUBLISHED

NFSI 101-C Test Method for Measuring Dry TCOF of Floor Mat Backing Materials

NFSI 101-C Test Method for Measuring Dry TCOF of Floor Mat Backing Materials.

NFSI B101.12 Standard Guide for the Application, Selection, and Use of Pedestrian Warnings as Related to the Prevention of Slips, Trips and Falls
B101.12 Standard Guide for the Application, Selection, and Use of Pedestrian Warnings as Related to the Prevention of Slips, Trips and Falls

Scope: the standard will set forth the minimum requirements for the proper use, application, selection, and usage of pedestrian warnings and will serve as a guide to end-users, manufacturers, and property owners as to prevent accidental slips, trips and falls.

IN DEVELOPMENT PROCESS—STANDARD CURRENTLY UNPUBLISHED

NFSI B101.13 Test Method for Measuring the Dry Dynamic Coefficient of Friction (DCOF) and Dry Static Coefficient of Friction (SCOF) of Hard-Surface Walkways

Scope: This test method specifies the procedures used for both laboratory and field-testing to measure the dry dynamic coefficient of friction (DCOF) and dry static coefficient of friction (SCOF) of hard-surface walkways.

IN DEVELOPMENT PROCESS—STANDARD CURRENTLY UNPUBLISHED

NFSI B101.11 Standard for the Prevention of Climate Related Slips, Trips and Falls
B101.11  Standard for the prevention of climate related slips, trips and falls

Scope: The standard will address the prevention of climate related slips, trips and falls (ie: snow, ice, rain, etc.)

IN DEVELOPMENT PROCESS—STANDARD CURRENTLY UNPUBLISHED

B101.14 Forensic Standard for Slip and Fall Analysis using Tribometers

Scope: This standard will provide the technical procedures for forensic walkway evaluations including measuring the coefficient of friction (tribometry) of hard-walkway surfaces. This will apply to both public and private facilities as well as uninstalled and installed flooring and other walkways to determine the root cause of a slip and fall by a forensic expert.

Purpose: The purpose of this standard is to provide specific methods and procedures for the performance of a forensic analysis of a walkway in connection with a slip and fall claim and to ensure that sound scientific principles are being applied which will be accepted and validated through the rigors of litigation. At the same time the courts are provided a method which allows them to reduce or eliminate possible junk science in this forensic category and meet the stringent requirements set forth via a Daubert challenge.

Application: This standard will set forth multiple requirements in the process of a forensic evaluation of walkways to determine whether a slip and fall event was the result of an insufficient level of slip resistance (COF). It will serve as a defensible foundation from which a forensic expert can rely on existing walkway safety standards along with a physics (science) based approach to tribometry.

IN DEVELOPMENT PROCESS—STANDARD CURRENTLY UNPUBLISHED